Those who see the structure of the Senate as a problem recognize that the Senate`s direct transition to a system of proportional representation would require a constitutional amendment. This means that three-quarters of states would have to accept such a change. It`s.. unlikely. Small states would reduce their vote and power in the Senate if it switched to proportional representation such as the House of Representatives. Under a parallel clause in Article 1, Section Eight, the Supreme Court ruled that states cannot tax these federal assets. In another case, Kleppe v. In New Mexico, the Court ruled that the federal Wild Horse and Burro Act was a constitutional exercise of Congress` power under the ownership clause — at least to the extent that it was applied to the determination of trespass. However, at the time of the election of the President, the votes shall be cast by the States, the representation of each State having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of one or more members of two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all States shall be required for an election. And if the House of Representatives does not elect a president every time the right to vote is transferred to it, before the fourth of March next year, then the vice president acts as president, as in the event of the death or other constitutional obstruction of the president – the person who has the most votes as vice president is the vice president, if that number is a majority of the total number of electors appointed and no one has a majority, the Senate shall elect the Vice-President from among the two largest numbers on the list; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the total number of senators, and a majority of the total number shall be required for an election. But no person who is constitutionally eligible for the office of President is entitled to the office of Vice President of the United States.

This section was not too controversial when it was created. This resulted in only one (long) paragraph in the Federalist Papers. Since then, some academics have written about it, the most in-depth investigation coming from an article written by Professors Michael Paulsen and Vasan Kesavan in connection with West Virginia`s admission to the Union. A political crisis in Rhode Island in the 1840s, the Dorr Rebellion, forced the Supreme Court to rule on the meaning of this clause. At the time, the Rhode Island Constitution was the old royal charter introduced in the 17th century. In the 1840s, only 40% of the free white men in the state had the right to vote. An attempt to hold a popular convention to write a new constitution was declared an uprising by the Charter government, and congressional leaders were arrested. One of them filed a lawsuit in federal court, arguing that the Rhode Island government had no “republican” character and that his arrest (along with all other government actions) was invalid. In Luther v.

Borden,[19] the Court ruled that determining whether a state government is a legitimate republican form, as guaranteed by the Constitution, is a political issue to be resolved by Congress. In fact, the court concluded that the clause was not justiciable. Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall enter into force on 15 October following the ratification of this Article. Section 1. The eighteenth article of the amendment to the United States Constitution is repealed. The Constitution is silent on whether a state can unilaterally leave or secede from the Union. However, the Supreme Court ruled in Texas v. White (1869) stated that a state cannot do this unilaterally. [11] Article 1.

The term of office of the President and the Vice-President shall end on 20 January at noon and that of Senators and Deputies at noon on 3 January of the years in which such terms would have ended had this Article not been ratified; then the mandates of their successors begin. A number of electors of the President and Vice President equal to the total number of senators and congressmen to which the district would be entitled if it were a state, but in no case more than the least populous state; they are in addition to the votes designated by States, but are deemed to be electors designated by a State for the purpose of electing the President and Vice-President; and they shall meet in the district and perform the functions provided for in the twelfth article of the amendment. The motives of the governor who requested extradition should not be questioned. The accused cannot defend himself against charges laid in the State of extradition; The refugee must do so in the receiving State. However, the accused may prevent extradition by providing clear evidence that he was not in the State from which he or she allegedly fled at the time of the crime. [3] There is no constitutional requirement that extradited refugees be brought to justice only for the offences mentioned in the extradition proceedings. This clause, commonly referred to as the property clause or “territorial” clause, gives Congress the constitutional power to administer and control any territory or other property belonging to the United States. In addition, the clause also states that nothing contained in the Constitution may be construed as prejudicial to any claim of the United States or any particular state. The exact scope of this clause has long been contested. Then, the convention approved a bill calling for the creation of a new state.

The people then elected delegates who drafted a constitution that the people approved by a large majority and was approved by the restored government of Virginia. Thus, the decision whether or not to admit West Virginia rested with Congress and the President. In their seminal article in the legal journal, Professors Paulsen and Kesavan focused almost exclusively on the semicolon issue. After analyzing the Constitution, they found that the semicolon between the second and third movements was probably more intended for a comma. As it looked more like a comma, the last previous cannon could be overcome. The U.S. Constitution is the oldest constitution in the world that is still actively in use. It was written in 1787 and officially ratified in 1788. Courts, legislators and law enforcement officials rarely address broader constitutional issues due to other circumstances.

Other issues (such as failure to plead damages or a change in the law) and circumstances often prevent substantive issues from being addressed. Section 5. Congress shall have the power to apply the provisions of this Article by appropriate legislation. Therefore, it is important to address contentious and unresolved constitutional issues before the issue is posted online. That said, before activists attempt to divide states like California, New York, and Texas to create more “equal” representation for the people of those states, to create more Senate seats for a particular political party, or even for federalism, it`s important to discuss and debate constitutional issues. Because once the movement is fully in force, the focus will be on the political and practical issues of such a movement, rather than the importance of Article IV, Section III. Article 4 of the U.S. Constitution deals with the roles and responsibilities of individual states. It was a subject of great importance when it was written, given the growing power enjoyed by states in the run-up to the civil war.

Article 4 of the Constitution protects citizens and states through the federal government. Section 1. One year after the ratification of this Article, the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating spirits domestically, their importation into the United States and all territories under its jurisdiction for beverage purposes, or their export from the United States and all territories under its jurisdiction for beverage purposes shall be prohibited.